The cavalry have those. The scimitar is a blade specifically designed to be used from horseback. It’s the grandfather of most cavalry blades, including those used in Europe down through the centuries. The curved design and single edge meant it could slash enemies with less risk of losing the blade as you traveled past at high speeds. A stabbing weapon that buries itself in an enemy and you’re at risk of it getting stuck as the horse races past, then you lose your weapon. It was so successful a design that it traveled throughout the world.
The scimitar is a very visually distinctive weapon which is why you see
it everywhere, but it’s not an infantry sidearm. It also wasn’t the only sword in use.
Javelins rather than swords, apparently, were a symbol of rank.
The basic rule of thumb
for swords in the (mostly) western world is curved for cavalry and
straight for infantry.
The curved, single edged sword like a saber is also the weapon of choice for boarding actions in naval combat. The reason being that the single edged blade can’t be forced back into you when in tight quarters. (I know someone out there is crying, but katana. The Japanese thought that too about British/Naval sabers, they were wrong.)
It’s probably worth remembering as you begin your investigation that “Moor” was the European term for Muslim, and that covers a vast variety of different ethnicities and cultures from Persia to North Africa; many of whom practiced distinct variations of their religion. Because these cultures are so different, it’s important that you narrow your search down to specified groups. This will help you when it comes to determining weapons, troop movements, battle strategies, and tactics.
Some things to remember, the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula was one of the (many) factors that kicked off the Crusades. The Muslims of the period were more scientifically advanced than the Europeans. If you wanted to see a doctor in the Middle Ages, and wanted to live, you went to see a Muslim. It’s one of the many inventions we can thank the Middle East for, including our numerical system and the survival of Aristotle. You know, an interesting period in history.
However, in the beginning, at least, the conquered Spain was part of a larger empire that spanned the Middle East and North Africa. So, if you really want to know what weapons were carried then its important to look to the invaders and their culture. Whether the scimitar was even in use really depends on the period you want to reference. 711 A.D? 1011 A.D? 1212 A.D? Or when the last Muslim foothold on the Iberian Peninsula finally came to an end in 1492, around the same time Columbus sailed the ocean blue?
It’s a huge period in history that covers a lot of ground. Try to remember that military evolution happens very quickly, and is influenced heavily by the enemies engaged.
When it comes to Moorish battle tactics, I know very little about them. I can tell you they tended to favor lighter armaments and light horses/coursers rather than the heavy. Here’s an overview of the Umayyad conquest that includes troop movements.
The answer to your question, though, of what did the infantry use is spears.
Here’s Wikipedia on Medieval Warfare.
Here’s Wikipedia on the Moors.
Wikipedia on the Umayadd conquest.
Wikipedia on Al-Adulus (Andalusia).
The tactics used in La Reconquista in 1347.
Watch some history nerds go at it (with references) on the Historum forums.
Warfare and Firearms in Fifteenth Century, Morrocco 1400-1492.
The Culture and Civilization of the Umayyads.
Swords and Sabers During the Early Islamic Period.
Islamic Arms and Armor.
An Overview of the Umayyad Caliphate.
More nerds discussing Medieval Arab warfare, strategy, and tactics on the Historum forums. (Love your nerds.)
Always remember: Wikipedia is a jumping off point for research, it is not the end. It’s a decent overview that will give you a grounding to start from but, as any good college professor will tell you, you want the citations at the bottom not the article header or the words in the middle.
The subject of warfare is complicated, to say the least, and covers a vast array of
cultures across both Europe, the Middle East, Eastern
Europe/Byzantine/Ottomans, and, occasionally, Central Asia.
Hopefully though, this gives you a jumping off point for more specified research into the time period and the armor worn/weapons wielded/tactics used.
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