No, the force inflicted on the target is going to be exactly the same as the force felt in recoil. This is basic Newtonian physics. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. The bullet goes one way, and the gun goes the other. Propelled apart by rapidly burning powder. That’s recoil.
Now, there’s a huge difference in how that force is distributed on impact, but the danger from a gunshot (or shotgun blast) isn’t the total force it’s how it’s delivered.
Distance does effect it, drag (or more accurately friction) will slow the projectiles down, bleeding some of the force. But this shouldn’t be a huge concern for a shotgun most of the time.