No. You don’t actually learn any of that in a basic self-defense course. You won’t actually learn any of that in any self-defense course unless your character is actively studying a martial art. The reason for this is that self-defense focuses on three major objectives: deterrence, stopping power, and escape.
The stuff you’re asking for is the stuff they teach in martial arts courses or in general combat training. And while it could be vital, it’s mostly superfluous for what the student actually needs, what they have time to learn, and how to keep them from ending up in jail on charges of assault and battery, even if it was done in self-defense. Please, try to keep in mind that fighting in self-defense doesn’t actually get you off on charges with the police, your character will be liable for any blows they land and any injuries their opponent sustains. So, the answer to what does a self-defense student learn is actually: not much.
What does self-defense teach?
Escapes. These are completely pre-cooked technique strings that you can’t break apart unless you are martially trained.
They’ll teach things like: how to get out of holds, clinches, and chokes. Knees to the groin, then grab the head and ram it into the knee. The forehead slam into your opponent’s face. How to make a fist without dislocating your thumb. They’ll teach you how to drop your weight if your grabbed from behind in a bear hug. They’ll teach you throws, usually the most basic ones. You might be familiar with this one: grab the wrist and toss them over your hip. They’ll teach you wrist releases. Ground fighting (kicking from the ground and basic strikes) and ground escapes (the shrimp and twist), but nothing fancy. As in, no chokes, no arm breaks, and for the most part no jiu-jutsu style grappling. The basic self-defense student wouldn’t have the flexibility for most of it anyway and usually lacks a practice partner to make it effective.
If your self-defense teacher is competent, they’ll generally dedicate a portion of the time to talking about predator and prey behavior, how to avoid dangerous situations, and what to do when you get mugged. Different teachers will give different answers.
What they won’t teach:
No wrist locks, no joint breaks, no conditioning, no stretches, none of the stuff built around creating a better fighter. They don’t need that, self-defense doesn’t teach you how to win fights, it teaches you how to get away from them. In fact, self-defense training doesn’t want you fighting at all unless it’s necessary.
They also don’t teach weapons, unless it’s a special course. No knife disarms and no gun disarms. The advice I got from my self-defense instructors were: “If they’ve got a knife or a gun, give them your wallet. The money is replaceable, you’re not.“ The only time they advised against doing what the attacker said was if they wanted you to get into a vehicle, because if you do, you’re going to be dead anyway. Don’t get in the car.
The droid you may be looking for:
1) That said, I really do recommend you looking up Michael Janich and Stay Safe Media. His stuff is a little more advanced, but it’s a very good example of what you can get out of a martial arts style that’s billed as self-defense. The bite-size chunks that are available on YouTube really are worth the watch and they’re very educational, they go into what you need and with visual examples. He’ll have techniques and different exercises that you may be able to incorporate for your characters. When I have the money, I actually intend to get his videos. He’s got some really great advice on how to keep yourself safe. So, really, look him up on YouTube.
2) Check out Aikido, Jiu-jutsu, Taekwondo, Muay Thai, and Krav Maga. Aikido is often billed as self-defense style, I don’t personally find it practical but a lot of people do. It’s going to have the spiritual element and the focus on balance that you may be looking for. It also puts a primer on techniques that will not injure the opponent. Taekwondo with it’s focus on balance and precision, Muay Thai’s practical brutality, and Krav Maga as a fighting form are also worth looking into as common self-defense styles. Jiu-jutsu is where the really solid joint locks, throws, and arm breaks come from. This will fill out your education in the places where the others might be lacking.
The thing of it is and I’m going to be bluntly honest here: the training you get from a basic self-defense course and the training you get from martial artists who teach martial arts billed as self-defense courses is utterly different. Each comes with an individual mindset and the two don’t cross-thread. It’s frustrating I know, but like I said in response to your first question: self-defense training isn’t The Karate Kid, where the student learns martial arts from an old master over the span of a few weeks and months in order to defend himself from bullies (bullies who happen to be training in the same martial style). Though, cliched as they are, both the original and the remake may actually be helpful to you in that respect.