Tag Archives: dystopia

For the record, I’d like to say I wouldn’t appreciate anyone doing that example

““They’re not rounding up political opponents; those are just ‘the mentally ill,’ It’s for their own good, really, they’ll be sent to reeducation centers.””

I know it’s “supposed to” sound extremely ableist, but it’s still massively ableist. Also not far off from probably what happens today, somewhere, or something like it.

Especially the “it’s for their own good” part. It’s less a far off dystopia and more right here right now.


Yeah, that’s not a fictional example. The United States, China, North Korea, Nazis, Soviet Union and even the Russian Federation have all used that specific argument at one time or another. That’s also not an exhaustive list, by any means, before you say I forgot to mention a group you wanted. (Now, I was thinking specifically of Julie Musante’s dialog from Babylon 5 when I was typing it, but Straczynski was also fully aware of the real history there, and was pulling from a lot of different historical sources to make the character.)

In particular, in the US, it has been invoked against the Women’s Liberation movement, and again against Civil Rights activists. If this makes you uncomfortable, good. Embrace that. It is at the core of what a dystopia really is. Not the nightmare of some possible future; not an unpleasantly comfortable adventure world; not some tech illiterate cyberpunk setting. Dystopias are the unmasked horror of the world that exists right outside your door, that you’ve been desperately trying to ignore.

We live in a world where the Chicago PD was just caught running an extra-judicial black site in Chicago’s West Side. Again, no space Nazis needed. Just ex-soldiers who took the Jack Bauer techniques they learned in the Military, brought them home, and are trying to maintain order as they see it.

You create a fictional world instead of using the real one, because you want to get your reader thinking about something without the inherent baggage of how the world should work. That’s everyone, from Ayn Rand to Warren Ellis. It works. You can talk about things that would massively piss off a reader if you just came straight at them preaching. You can bypass some prejudice, and get someone to think about an issue more objectively if it’s couched in a fictional world.

This is where things like the original Star Trek TV series become brilliant. (Granted, in that specific example, it’s a kind of mescaline soaked brilliance.) They bring up issues that are too touchy to address directly, and then talk about the subject, and leave you to sort out the meaning after the fact. (Also, if you’re into scholarly articles, Star Trek in all of its incarnations leads to some really interesting critical analysis. For both it’s successes and it’s failures.)

Dystopian fiction is at its best, when you can see the outline of the world you live in, and realize just how dangerously close you are to getting there.

Be disturbed, that really is the point.


I’ve been trying my hand at writing dystopian science fiction, but I always feel unsatisfied with the end product. As much as I try, it’s like I keep treading the same ground other writers in the genre have walked upon to death with my characters. What do you think I should take into consideration when trying to write a dystopian story with characters that don’t feel like standard cut-and-paste genre caricatures?

By having something to say. Without exception dystopian lit is political. It’s a genre founded in the axiom, “be careful what you wish for;” using human misery to drive the point home. The payoff is always the argument you’re making in the process.

In writing a dystopia, you’re asking your readers to inhabit a fundamentally horrible world for awhile. You need to do something to justify that. It can be compelling characters, but that’s more of an end than means. If your world exists for a reason, it will go a long way towards explaining what is there, and giving it the unique identity it needs.

Also, don’t assume you need to be writing a fascist state. I see a lot of writers conflate these, don’t make the same mistake.

You do need a setting that makes sense. Ask your self how “normal” people go about their day to day lives. This is just general world building advice, but it’s incredibly important when you’re setting up a dystopia.

No one is stopping you from cranking your setting too far. Making things too desperate and bleak. But, for a functioning dystopia, you need people buying into the system, because what they gain through participation is more valuable than what they’re giving up.

One very good way to handle this is by hiding the unsavory nature under a veneer of public safety or health. “They’re not rounding up political opponents; those are just ‘the mentally ill,’ It’s for their own good, really, they’ll be sent to reeducation centers.” There’s a part of your brain that knows how horribly wrong that is, but if it sounds legitimate, that dissonance will serve your setting fantastically.

Also playing in the opposite direction is also useful for selling a setting that’s gone off the rails are excessive propaganda. Playing up how wonderful the world’s system is, even while the audience is shown the real horrors lurking under the surface. Orwell’s 1984 has a wonderful (read: horrific) take on this by rewriting the language people use to deny them the ability to dissent.

It’s important to understand that an effective dystopia needs people that will actively defend the status quo and view it as desirable. Either they actually benefit from it, or because they think that, one day, they will benefit from it.

In case you really want to run with fascism anyway, here’s a few things to point out.

Almost universally, fascism starts in a desire for revenge, marching lock step with nationalistic pride. The poster children of Fascism, the Nazis, came to power by appealing to the German peoples’ resentment over World War I reparations, which had left their country in economic shambles.

Fascism frequently secures it’s power base by playing bullies. That is to say, they pick a culturally acceptable target and start going after them as a means to make everyone else feel better about themselves. This could be an ethic group, a sexual orientation, political or philosophical ideology. They vilify that group, and let everyone else feel good about going after them. It’s important to remember, those targets aren’t picked out of a hat, they play on existing social prejudices; sanctioning and playing into them.

They also thrive on giving petty people enormous power to mess with people. Police and low level bureaucrats are given extreme power and allowed to run roughshod over the “little people.” Again, playing bullies. This also often includes picking members from the oppressed group to police their own. The expressed argument is that they are best suited to “protect” their own from outside oppression, but the truth is they will often be far more brutal, and provide a mitigating factor to keep the oppressed from looking at the true abusers.

The biggest possible mistake about a fascist system is dehumanizing the oppressors. They’re still exploiting and/or bullying the people under them, but they are humans who are making decisions based on the information they have. Someone who is evil in an understandable way is far more threatening and disturbing than someone engaged in cartoon supervillainy.

Again, you can just as easily present a dystopia that’s democratic. In some ways it’s easier, because unless you’re specifically talking about governmental overreach, then a fascist state is only going to muddy whatever you’re trying to talk about.

So, here’s a few classic dystopian novels to get you started: Just, fair warning, there’s only one book on this list that I actually enjoy. Don’t expect a lot of happy endings, this isn’t that kind of a list.

Handmaid’s Tale by Margret Atwood. This is a story about a woman caught in a Christian theocracy in the United States. Make sure you read the appendix, it provides a lot of background about the world from the perspective of in-setting academics analyzing the tapes that frame the book.

A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch, by Alexander Solzhenitsyn. If you thought dystopias couldn’t happen in the real world, I’m sorry. Ivan Denisovitch is partially based on Solzhenitsyn’s experiences in the Soviet gulag system. I hesitate to call it “autobiographical,” but it’s not using a fictional world.

Destined to Witness: Growing Up Black in Nazi Germany, by Hans J. Massaquoi. It’s The Third Reich, really, any discussion on fascism should probably include this. By focusing on the German people, the discussion revolves around anecdotes about the effectiveness propaganda so great that even those who do not benefit and are ostracized (such as Hans) buy into it. Nazi Germany is often treated as an anomaly in fiction, this is a good reminder that not only did it happen but it can happen again, anywhere.

Native Son by Richard Wright. Because 1930s Chicago isn’t your first thought for dystopian fiction. Except, here it is. A classic of the genre, where you didn’t expect to see it.

White Tiger by Aravind Adiga. White Tiger is almost a more comical take on Native Son. Set in modern day India, it deals with a similar narrative. It’s the only novel on the list from the last 20 years, but at this point you could probably use some comic relief. It also presents realities of a modern day dystopia that’s heavily grounded in the real world.

Animal Farm and 1984 by George Orwell. I don’t like either of these, but Orwell is still in print for a reason. Animal Farm does make more sense if you’re familiar with the Russian revolution. And, of course, 1984 is the book on oppressive dystopian governments. If you haven’t read it by now, you need to.

Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury. If I’m honest, I don’t think Bradbury knows what he was saying, or what the book even means. But, he was certainly trying to say something. Probably, about the corrosive nature on popular culture on classical literature. But, I’m guessing. Regardless, it’s worth your time, especially to expand your toolbox of social manipulation from 1984.

The Jungle by Upton Sinclair. So… I skipped most of this when it was assigned in college. Sinclair was trying to advocate for safer work conditions, but instead lead to increased regulation of food production in America. As with Native Son, this is just America, no sinister space Nazis needed.


Tricky question, not sure if this is the right place, but here goes: I’m starting up a futuristic dystopia where all firearms are prohibited from the civilian population and it’s going to be in an urban setting. What kinds of hand to hand weapons would reemerge in such a situation?

I don’t think any weapons would “reemerge.” I mean, we talked about how a bow is out of the question a long time ago. Actually, I’m going to step back a bit. “Dystopia” has become a keyphrase for fascist/authoritarian lately. Any sufficiently bleak setting can end up as a dystopia. Strictly speaking, there’s an entire subgenre of postapocalyptic stuff that falls into that range, along with a fairly large chunk of the cyberpunk genre.

The reason I’m bringing this up is because guns tend to remain in circulation in those settings, even if they’re illegal to own. It’s fine to say that the governments of the world outlawed firearms, but that doesn’t explain how they managed to round up the roughly half a billion firearms in circulation.

Even if you say the police respond more harshly to gun crimes, for example, summary execution for suspicion of possessing a firearm, then that removes the veil of authority and turns the police into just another inner city gang, to be killed on sight, albeit a better equipped one. This is actually a problem police face currently, in some major cities, like New York and Los Angeles.

Anyway, stepping back from that, any other weapons? Honestly, this is going to read more like a list of improvised weapons. Because almost anything can be used to kill someone else, this is by no means exhaustive.

Anyone with a belt sander and a piece of scrap metal can make a shiv, knives aren’t going anywhere, and they’re easy to conceal.

Even if we’re talking about a post-apocalyptic setting, improvised flamethrowers and cattle prods should be fairly easy to rig up, for anyone with some decent metal working equipment. Getting good fuel for a flamethrower could be an issue. It can’t be something too corrosive that’ll eat through the weapon’s feed system. It can’t be something that produces a lot of residue, which can gunk up the same system. And, of course, it needs to be flammable, (which is probably the easiest requirement).

Zip guns are also really easy to make. You can check youtube for some examples of those. Ammunition is the same. It won’t be commercial quality. But, if we’re talking about black market weapons and ammo, the production may very well be just as good. I think the Anarchist’s Cookbook has how to guides on all of the above examples, but I’ve never actually gotten around to reading it.

Hatchets and hand axes are unlikely to go anywhere. Sledgehammers and shovels are lethal as they are obvious.

I mentioned rebar earlier, but that stuff has some serious value as an improvised weapon. It’s small enough that it could, potentially, be stashed up someone’s sleeve, and it can easily kill.

I’ve always felt chain whips are a bit goofy, but you can certainly lash the hell out of someone with one. A whip can also be improvised from electrical cable, though, that’s more of a novelty weapon.

Tactical batons aren’t going to have disappeared either, and those are a lot harder to track down. Basically these are telescopic steel batons, they come in “18 and “24 varieties, and either size can really wreck your day. They collapse down into a small cylinder about the size of a pocket flashlight.

While I’m thinking about flashlights, any metal D-Cell flashlight can be turned into a really vicious weapon.

On the subject of dystopias, in general, I’d recommend researching feral cities and failed states. A lot of the feral city research has been in the last couple years, so getting access to good articles could be difficult, but there’s a pretty substantial body of work on failed states. This should give you some ideas for dystopias that range beyond: just another fascist state.