Tag Archives: height and weight

Not sure if this has already been addressed, but what are some tips for fighting back when you’re on the ground and being attacked by a man? By a dog? Thanks.

Due to the nature of this question, I’m going to label this with a tw for animals and violence against them. The part about dogs is uncomfortable to talk about for most people. It’s a good question, just…uncomfortable.

First a disclaimer, since your question is unclear. This isn’t a blog designed to teach you how to fight or a self-defense blog. This is a blog designed to help authors develop better fight scenes. For “real life” you need a real, physically present teacher and practice with a partner. In a self-defense context it’s best if you have a male friend who goes with you and doesn’t mind being the punch dummy.

I’m going to do a whole subsection devoted to ground fighting once I get through working my way through kicks. I only know most of the basic grappling moves like how to do different variations of the arm bar, triangle leg choke, ground defense, etc. But the basic gist of it is this:

1) You never want to end up on the ground in a fight.

2) Almost all fights will eventually go to the ground, so learn how to fight there.

In a ground fight, the person who is the largest and heaviest with strongest muscles has the advantage. So, larger men and larger women have a serious advantage over smaller men and smaller women. They will have the advantage, even if the smaller fighter lands on top. That’s the second thing, the fighter who takes the top position usually wins unless their opponent knows how to defend themselves (and didn’t break anything in the fall). Street fighters will often attempt to take each other to ground in an opening bid for dominance, because they’ve learned this rule: he or she who goes to the ground first and gets the top spot wins.

This is why most street fighters are idiots. The ground is the worst place to be whether you are male or female. Again, because of the gravity and weight advantage, but also because it puts the back of your head too close to the ground (that ground could be concrete).

On the ground in the real world, the first goal is to get off the ground and escape. In a fight, the person on the bottom’s first goal is to get back on top. You can do that in a fair number of ways, none of which are easy even against an opponent the same size as yourself. It takes time and training to be able to use any of them. Plus, we’d need to sit down to talk about body positioning and terminology before even broaching the subject of the useful techniques. Grappling is much more complicated than kicking.

But start by thinking about this: the average man weighs between 180-220 pounds. When standing in a fight you only take a fraction of that weight, even when they are leaning on you. When they are sitting on you, you get to take all of it. You’re not fighting their strength (though your physical strength is very important when you’re on the bottom), you’re really fighting against their weight. This is where people screw up the height and weight thing, weight relates to fighting on the ground and not so much anywhere else (unless they’ve got a few hundred pounds on you). Height matters with kicks. When we get close enough for hands, a few centimeters of difference in the arms isn’t going to be enough to matter. (Greater height and weight also give a psychological advantage to the attacker and works against the victim. But it’s mostly the intimidation factor and it’d usually what’s driving the fight because the attacker believes they’ll win.)

Grappling is about finding the path of least resistance, shifting weight, breaking bones, and, honestly, death. None of the attacks I learned are gentle, because being in that situation is dire. If grappling is something you’re interested in Jiujutsu and Judo are two good martial arts to study. Also, sign up for local self-defense courses that cover ground fighting. As for tips: don’t roll over on your stomach (oops, you want to be on your back!), you’ll get pinned and you won’t be able to fight. It’s a natural instinct to do this, but it doesn’t work.

Dogs? Okay, I just want everyone to know: I am a dog lover. I love dogs, cats, and animals of all shapes and sizes. But it’s important to remember that animals can be dangerous, whether that danger comes from a bad owner or what they’ve been trained to do, they are dangerous. So, if you don’t want to read about dogs in that context, please don’t go any further.

There aren’t any martial arts out there designed to deal with dogs. If it’s one of the smaller dogs, you won’t have much trouble. If it’s a dog like a German Shepherd or a Doberman, a dog that has been bred and trained to protect and guard someone or something? Or a Pit Bull that has been raised to fight? Oh, ouch.  So, things to remember: a dog is much faster than you, a dog has more killing power than you do, a dog has teeth, it has a better bite, it’s got better instincts, and guard dogs generally run in packs.

The best tip for fighting a dog is: don’t. Back away slowly (don’t run, like a wild animal that triggers the “prey” switch), get out of it’s territory, don’t yell but try to be authoritative. Use words like “no, bad, stop” and hope the dog was trained to understand English (and not some other language). If the animal’s handler or owner is there, then all bets at being the dominant authority are off. Also, check with your local Animal Control experts to see if they have any good advice. Dogs can be wonderful pets, but many breeds were bred for a certain kind of work and they do that work very well. Even medium sized dogs can be very dangerous in the right conditions. So, if the situation is you or the dog, my advice is pick you. Do whatever you have to and get out of there. Weapons with a longer reach, if any are available, such as a crowbar are helpful.

Starke says: wear armor, even just something like a leather jacket will be more difficult for the dog to bite through. You have to give them something to bite onto like your forearm and go at them while they are chewing on that. You will get bit, though. Whether the next step is breaking the dog’s jaw or killing it is up to the situation and the nature of the person in question. It’s a last ditch resort in either case.

I think that’s all.

-Michi

Fight Write: Some Thoughts on Height and Weight

“She’s taller than me, heavier too. She’s got the height and weight advantage.”

This sounds good, doesn’t it? It sounds right and reasonable, like the character knows what they’re talking about. Except, they don’t. Assume for a second that the character who says this is maybe five foot six and the girl who says this is maybe five foot two, and that seems like a big difference. It certainly is visually, but the two have a difference of maybe twenty to forty pounds between them. That’s not actually a lot, even if one was to knock the other over. So, when does weight matter? When is height important? The answer is not often and not a lot, depending on training. An untrained fighter is mostly at the mercy of their opponent’s brute strength, so height and weight start to become very important. But what about for the trained fighter? The approach varies, depending on the style and the size of fighter.

With the exception of a few, pertinent points, height and weight actually matter a lot less than you might think they do. So, let’s talk about the advantages and the disadvantages of these two. Maybe, we’ll even debunk a few preconceptions along the way.

Small versus Tall:

It’s important to say when I talk about height and “short” on this blog, that we say short as the descriptor for anyone under 5”10 or around 6”. This may sound strange for some of you, because that relegates most women to the position of “short” even when they’ve been considered “tall” their whole lives. I could say this has to do with a median of male heights and most fighters in America being around six feet, but the truth is it has nothing to do with a person’s actual height at all. The difference is a mental one and small versus tall is reoriented into “advantaged” versus “disadvantaged” fighters. This is where the male versus female outlooks become relevant. Male versus female is not so much a difference in body type as much as a difference in how they see the world around them and shift their combat style accordingly. Tall, male versus short, female is usually how many martial artists break it down. However, because these are learned skills that doesn’t mean that the outlook cannot be adopted by a student of either gender, regardless of how physically tall or short they are.

This is where things get complicated. Most of the common wisdom about fighting that gets spread in society has zero basis in reality, the mind, how it sees the world, and what it’s been prepared for is actually much more important than a character’s physiology or their body type.

Remember, like any weapon, it’s the mind that wields the body, not the other way around. How someone sees themselves is more relevant to how they fight than what shape their body is.

There are only two questions you should really ask when your character is facing a taller or shorter opponent (someone who is taller or shorter than they are): what has my character been trained to do? Have they been trained to deal with opponents who are taller or shorter than themselves?

Most fighters who have trained to think of themselves as “tall” will discount a shorter opponent if they have no experience fighting them. A character with a “short” outlook will tend not to discount anyone on the basis that they’re used to being the smallest, weakest thing in the room and they have to fight harder to prove themselves.

On the physical side:

A character who is lower to the ground will have a lower center of gravity, this means that they won’t have to bend their legs as far to reach a stable stance to keep themselves from being knocked over. This also means that when dealing with a heavier opponent (while standing), they have more time to adjust for the weight before they drop so low that their knees can’t support them anymore. They will also have a better sense of balance, if they’ve been trained for that.

On the whole when we’re talking about women (in the physical sense only), the female body is more compact than the male one. Everything is just a little tighter and more evenly proportioned. This doesn’t mean women can’t be lanky, but they are usually less so than men. This affects their sense of balance and their ability to adjust under the weight of a heavier opponent, it’s true that a woman usually will be unable to develop the brawn of a man but they counter that by having better coordination and control overall.

Weight:

There’s some confusion about weight and fighting, for this I blame Hollywood and our “health” culture. It’s important to keep in mind that being on the heavier side, particularly for women, isn’t necessarily a sign of being unhealthy. On average, most fighters are ten to twenty pounds heavier than someone who works out primarily as a weight loss system. It’s rare to find a female fighter who is under 125 pounds. Even the thinnest female fighters have a habit of averaging out to about 130 to 145, even up to 150-160, without any significant difference in what they look like visually, this is because muscles are heavy. In fact, they are much heavier than fat, though they take up less space.

Then, some people are just built more heavily than others and no matter what they do, will just be heavy. If combat was something only skinny people could do, the world would probably have been at peace a long time ago and the Viking tribes of Northern Europe wouldn’t have conquered half the globe. Sometimes, weight just happens as we get older. So, it’s important to remember that muscle can be built up underneath fat, it can exist under fat, and if the person in question (male or female) is heavier than others in the class this isn’t an immediate detriment to their speed, flexibility, or power. It can be if they don’t have the muscles to support their body or if they’ve just started building those muscles.

I doubt anyone in their right mind would tell me that Sammo Hung, an old friend of Jackie Chan cannot fight.

Heavy Fighters: It’s important to remember that though heavier or even overweight fighters are not necessarily impeded by their weight, that there are some things they have to adjust for. But they have their own advantages too.

Balance: a heavier fighter is carrying around more mass than a light weight one, that’s not necessarily more power that they can generate, but they can build up more momentum once they get going. Again, strength in combat is related to speed more than physical strength. A heavier fighter can be like a freight train and you don’t want to be in their way once they start moving. Still, as in physics: the faster you go, the harder it is to stop. If a heavier fighter misses, it’s going to be slightly more difficult for them to readjust and reorient, so they have to moderate their speed. A heavier fighter’s kicks will still be very effective, but they may find their mass getting in the way if they try to kick above the waist. More weight also means more strain on the knees, so a heavy fighter will have to spend a lot of time learning to adjust their stances and footwork to compensate for their bulk. But the differences between “thin” versus “fat” fighting styles are so minimal that I usually forget to mention them. This isn’t to be exclusionary, it’s more that on a basic level it doesn’t matter and when it does, the positives outweigh the negatives.

Natural Armor: Fat provides the body with natural armor. It covers the muscles and provides some small measure of padding for the fall. Armies don’t want their soldiers weighing in at 300 pounds, but martial artists aren’t normally army. Fat also has a nice side effect of covering up the body’s pressure points and keeping them from being visible. On a physical level women have a natural coat of fat that covers the muscles and keeps the definition from showing (except in certain circumstances of muscle development), this is why it’s difficult for women to learn pressure points when they practice with each other. An overly muscled individual provides nice targets on their arms, chest, and legs.

When fat absorbs some the impact, it can be more difficult to damage a heavy opponent.

On the Ground: On soft areas like in muddy rivers or on the ground weight is king, especially if the fighter is used to adjusting for their weight. When lying flat on the ground or even just kneeling, the natural advantages of a shorter fighter are nullified. This is because it’s harder to adjust for the weight of a heavier person without the use of your legs, relying only on your arms, hips, and your ability to disrupt their position. Fighting is hard for women on the ground, because against men, they are usually dealing with an opponent who has at least forty pounds on them, while this difference is negligible while standing, the ground is an entirely different story. Greater weight + gravity = killer.

When Does Weight Matter? From the standing position it only starts to really matter when you’re facing an opponent that has between eighty to hundred pounds on your character. This isn’t a killing blow, it’s just important to note, especially if they get themselves into a situation where they are putting all their weight on top of the smaller person. You can adjust to handle the weight, of course, but there’s always the possibility that they will sink down far enough that your character’s knees will bend too far. The added momentum only helps them if your character is unable to block or they connect solidly, but it’s not going to be that much worse than if they were hit by someone of equal size and weight.

It’s also important to remember that even a tall, heavy character with a good stance can be difficult to bring down if your characters try to fight them like they would anyone else. The answer? Don’t fight them like you would anyone else. Start low and work your way up.

The exception to this rule, of course, is street fighting. Street fighters don’t really know what they are doing and so the weight and size of another fighter really start to matter there. All this advice is for a character who already knows how to fight.

Greater Reach:

I’ll be honest, greater reach only really matters in two places: when you’re on the defensive and when you’re working with a longarm such as a staff or a sword. The theory for greater reach is this: it will be harder for your opponent to hit you, while it’s easier for you to hit them because you don’t have as far to go.

This isn’t going to matter when there’s only a difference of a few inches. This isn’t even really going to matter if the smaller individual has been trained to fight against larger opponents. And it’s really, really, not going to matter if it’s just hand to hand with no kicks involved. The reason is that legs are longer than the arms and kicking involves leaning backwards instead of forwards with the punch.

The only time in my life I ever remember being really frustrated with a height difference was when I was five or six years old as a yellow belt out on my first sparring experience against our much taller second-degree black belt African-American Instructor, Alan. Alan was in his early twenties, well over six feet, and had very, very long legs. I was four foot nothing and my tiny legs could not reach him, while his were excellent at hitting me. It was very frustrating, especially since I had no clue what I was doing. (He did let me hit him a few times, but my little legs could only reach mid-way up his thigh.)

Speed is actually much more important than reach, being able to get in and out fast while taking minimal damage is when things start getting impressive. Outside of that, it’s not really a big deal.

Professional Fighting:

This is where you really hear the terms height and weight bandied about and they say it exactly like that, on repeat, over and over. Why? It sounds good. An announcer’s job is to drum up the excitement of the crowd, to get people yelling, to get them betting. The height and weight advantage can create a very clear picture in the eyes of the audience for who has the longest odds (if that’s the case). The goal is to convince the audience and the compulsive gamblers to bet on the loser, creating the ideal of the tough, scrappy underdog that people want to succeed. Not because they will, no, in the eyes of the tournament, they don’t have a chance. But they will have succeeded in taking the audience’s money by convincing them that the longshot might very well just be a sure thing. Or, alternately, it makes for a good show. Remember, professional fighting is as much about showmanship as it is about sportsmanship.

MMA fighters, boxers, and kickboxers are all broken up into separate class distribution based on weight. With these guys, we’re talking a difference of five to forty pounds (maybe, but usually not). That’s not actually a very big difference.

-Michi

The Speculative World: Unusual Martial Art: Street Fighting

The Speculative World: Unusual Martial Art: Street Fighting